The Important Role of Immunization in the Growth and Development of the Child
Oleh: Morinaga Platinum
Immunization or vaccination refers to a medical method of preventing communicable diseases that are implemented by providing vaccines so that an individual becomes resistant to that disorder. A vaccine containing a certain type of bacteria or virus that has been attenuated will be administered to the child to stimulate their immune system to form antibodies in the body. Immunization has successfully reduced and eradicated various communicable diseases such as monkey pox, pertussis, polio, measles, and other diseases.
There are various routes of administration for immunization, which include injected and oral. Some are enough to be given once in a lifetime, while others need to be given periodically for the immune system to form perfectly.
Children receiving immunization will be more immune to a disease. Even if they fall ill, the symptoms they experience will be milder than other children who have not been immunized.
Every year, the Indonesian Academy of Pediatrics release a new immunization schedule. In 2017, they released the schedule for 16 types of immunization that should be administered to the child. The types of immunization are continuously revised based on the conditions in practice. What are the vaccinations required by the child to obtain optimal protection? The following are some examples:
The first DTP vaccine is given at 6 weeks at the earliest. It can be provided in the form of a DTwP or DTaP vaccine, or in combination with other vaccines. For children aged more than 7 years, the Td vaccine can be given, which requires a booster every 10 years.
The administration of BCG vaccine is recommended before the age of 3 months, but it is better when given at the age of 2 months. If given after the age of 3 months, a tuberculin test should be conducted.
The oral polio vaccine (OPV-0) should be given at birth or when the baby is about to return home. The subsequent polio vaccines (polio-1, polio-2, polio-3, and polio boosters) can be given in the form of OPV that is administered orally or IPV that is administered by injecting it into the muscle. However, at least 1 dose of IPV should be given.
The second measles vaccine does not need to be administered at 24 months, if MMR has been administered at 15 months.
This is best administered within 12 hours after birth, preceded by vitamin K (to prevent the occurrence of bleeding due to vitamin K deficiency). When a baby is born from an HBsAg positive mother, a hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg) is also administered on the other limb.
- If administered at the age of 7-12 months, give 2 times at 2 month intervals (along with a booster at the age of more than 12 months or at least 2 months following the last dose)
- If administer at the age of more than 1 year, give 1 time (along with a booster at least 2 months following the last dose)
- If administered to children at the age of more than years, 1 time is enough
- The monovalent vaccine (vaccine using one viral strain) is administered twice: The first dose is administered at the age of 6-14 weeks, the second dose should be given at least after 4 weeks (preferably before the age of 16 weeks but should not exceed 24 weeks)
- The pentavalent vaccine (vaccine using five viral strains) is administered 3 times: The first dose is given at the age of 6-14 weeks, the second and third dose should be given at least after 4-10 weeks, with the third dose being given at the age of less than 32 weeks
Can be given after the child is older than 12 months (but it is better to administer prior to entering primary school). If administered to children aged more than 12 years, it requires 2 doses with an interval of at least 4 weeks.
The influenza vaccine is given at the age of at least 6 months and repeated every year. For the first immunization (primary immunization) in children aged less than 9 years, it is given twice with an interval of at least 4 weeks.
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)
The HPV vaccine can be given from the age of 10 years. The bivalent HPV vaccine (vaccine using two viral strains) is given three times at intervals of 0, 1, and 6 months, whereas the tetravalent vaccine (vaccine using four viral strains) is given at intervals of 0, 2, and 6 months.
So, for the optimal growth and development process of the child, in addition to ensuring that their nutritional intake is adequate and they have received appropriate stimulations, they also require protection from immunization.